The Platonic school promoted the study of astronomy as a part of philosophy because the motions of the heavens demonstrate an orderly and harmonious cosmos.
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In the third century BC, Babylonian astrology began to make its presence felt in Greece. However, the notions of the Great Year when all the planets complete a full cycle and return to their relative positions and eternal recurrence were Stoic doctrines that made divination and fatalism possible. In the Hellenistic world, the Greek words 'astrologia' and 'astronomia' were often used interchangeably, but they were conceptually not the same.
Plato taught about 'astronomia' and stipulated that planetary phenomena should be described by a geometrical model. The first solution was proposed by Eudoxus.
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Aristotle favored a physical approach and adopted the word 'astrologia'. Eccentrics and epicycles came to be thought of as useful fictions. For a more general public, the distinguishing principle was not evident and either word was acceptable. For the Babylonian horoscopic practice, the words specifically used were 'apotelesma' and ' katarche ', but otherwise it was subsumed under the aristotelian term 'astrologia'.
In his compilatory work Etymologiae , Isidore of Seville noted explicitly the difference between the terms astronomy and astrology Etymologiae, III, xxvii and the same distinction appeared later in the texts of Arabian writers. Astrology was widely accepted in medieval Europe as astrological texts from Hellenistic and Arabic astrologers were translated into Latin. In the late Middle Ages , its acceptance or rejection often depended on its reception in the royal courts of Europe. Not until the time of Francis Bacon was astrology rejected as a part of scholastic metaphysics rather than empirical observation.
A more definitive split between astrology and astronomy in the West took place gradually in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when astrology was increasingly thought of as an occult science or superstition by the intellectual elite. Because of their lengthy shared history, it sometimes happens that the two are confused with one another even today. Many contemporary astrologers, however, do not claim that astrology is a science, but think of it as a form of divination like the I-Ching , an art, or a part of a spiritual belief structure influenced by trends such as Neoplatonism , Neopaganism , Theosophy , and Hinduism.
The primary goal of astronomy is to understand the physics of the universe. Astrologers use astronomical calculations for the positions of celestial bodies along the ecliptic and attempt to correlate celestial events astrological aspects , sign positions with earthly events and human affairs. Astronomers consistently use the scientific method , naturalistic presuppositions and abstract mathematical reasoning to investigate or explain phenomena in the universe. Astrologers use mystical or religious reasoning as well as traditional folklore , symbolism and superstition blended with mathematical predictions to explain phenomena in the universe.
The scientific method is not consistently used by astrologers. Astrologers practice their discipline geocentrically   and they consider the universe to be harmonious, changeless and static, while astronomers have employed the scientific method to infer that the universe is without a center and is dynamic, expanding outward per the Big Bang theory.
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Astrologers believe that the position of the stars and planets determine an individual's personality and future. Astronomers study the actual stars and planets, but have found no evidence supporting astrological theories. Psychologists study personality, and while there are many theories of personality, no mainstream theories in that field are based on astrology. The Myers-Briggs personality typology, based on the works of Carl Jung , has four major categories that correspond to the astrological elements of fire, air, earth, and water.
This theory of personality is used by career counselors and life coaches but not by psychologists. Both astrologers and astronomers see Earth as being an integral part of the universe, that Earth and the universe are interconnected as one cosmos not as being separate and distinct from each other.
However, astrologers philosophically and mystically portray the cosmos as having a supernatural , metaphysical and divine essence that actively influences world events and the personal lives of people. For a long time the funding from astrology supported some astronomical research, which was in turn used to make more accurate ephemerides for use in astrology. In Medieval Europe the word Astronomia was often used to encompass both disciplines as this included the study of astronomy and astrology jointly and without a real distinction; this was one of the original Seven Liberal Arts.
Kings and other rulers generally employed court astrologers to aid them in the decision making in their kingdoms, thereby funding astronomical research. University medical students were taught astrology as it was generally used in medical practice. Astronomy and astrology diverged over the course of the 17th through 19th centuries. Copernicus didn't practice astrology nor empirical astronomy; his work was theoretical  , but the most important astronomers before Isaac Newton were astrologers by profession — Tycho Brahe , Johannes Kepler , and Galileo Galilei.
Also relevant here was the development of better timekeeping instruments, initially for aid in navigation ; improved timekeeping made it possible to make more exact astrological predictions—predictions which could be tested, and which consistently proved to be false. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the broader relation with science, see Astrology and science.
Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. Astronomers conduct this extensive research through the use of specialized equipment and computer programs. Telescopes and satellites are commonly used to analyze and collect data.
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There is much debate about whether astrology should be considered an actual branch of science or categorized as metaphysical. Astrology does incorporate some elements of real science, like specialized vocabulary, math, and complicated diagrams. Despite this, astrological theories have little validity. Astrologers do not apply the scientific method to any claims made. These arguments revolve around the concept of energy patterns, similar to yoga and Feng Shui, which also have minimal scientific support.
With little evidence and emphasis placed on myths and superstition, astrology falls under the umbrella of pseudo-science. An astrological clock is a unique tool that displays astronomical information related to planetary movements and the impact they have on time. The relative positions of the moon, the sun, and zodiacal constellations are commonly displayed. Birth charts are believed to hold fixed energy that engages with the planets as they move, which represents a message or meaning between other individuals. A birth chart is entirely dependent on the birth date of a person and consists of three sections, planet, house, and sign.
Each sign is a representation of different personality traits and attributes. By applying this knowledge to the symbolic associations present, one is better able to understand why they get along better with some people more than others.
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For centuries, humans have used the stars in the Northern Hemisphere to figure out the exact date month, day, and year and time. To determine the current year the time required for the earth to orbit around the sun must be calculated. The pattern of Lunar phases and the amount of time it takes Earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the Sun influence the month and day. Past astrologers also had the ability to figure out the time of day through the use of a sundial. A sundial is composed of a flat surface marked with symbols and a rod in the center. Depending on the height of the sun, the rod casts a shadow over several markings, which indicates the current time.
The concepts and theories that revolve around the subject of astrology are quite complex. A thorough understanding of what each cosmic alignment and planetary movement represent will make it easier for one to comprehend the message conveyed.